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内容提示: Bioprocessing for Biomolecules Production Bioprocessing for Biomolecules ProductionEditedbyGustavoMolinaLaboratory of FoodBiotechnology – Food EngineeringInstitute of Science and Technology – UFVJMDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazilVijaiKumarGuptaERA Chair of Green ChemistryDepartment of Chemistry and BiotechnologyTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstoniaBrahmaN.SinghCSIR-National Botanical Research InstLucknow, Uttar PradeshIndiaNicholasGathergoodERA Chair of Green ChemistryTallinn University of Te...

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Bioprocessing for Biomolecules Production Bioprocessing for Biomolecules ProductionEditedbyGustavoMolinaLaboratory of FoodBiotechnology – Food EngineeringInstitute of Science and Technology – UFVJMDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazilVijaiKumarGuptaERA Chair of Green ChemistryDepartment of Chemistry and BiotechnologyTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstoniaBrahmaN.SinghCSIR-National Botanical Research InstLucknow, Uttar PradeshIndiaNicholasGathergoodERA Chair of Green ChemistryTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia Th is edition f i rst published 2020© 2020 John Wiley & Sons LtdAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,except as permitted by law. Advice on how to obtain permission to reuse material from this title is availableat http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.T h e right of Gustavo Molina, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Brahma N. Singh, and Nicholas Gathergood to beidentif i ed as authors of the editorial material in this work has been asserted in accordance with law.Registered Of f i cesJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USAJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd, T h e Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UKEditorial Of f i ceT h e Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UKFor details of our global editorial of f i ces, customer services, and more information about Wiley productsvisit us at www.wiley.com.Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some content thatappears in standard print versions of this book may not be available in other formats.Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of WarrantyWhile the publisher and authors have used their best ef f orts in preparing this work, they make norepresentations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work andspecif i cally disclaim all warranties, including without limitation any implied warranties of merchantability orf i tness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives, writtensales materials or promotional statements for this work. T h e fact that an organization, website, or product isreferred to in this work as a citation and/or potential source of further information does not mean that thepublisher and authors endorse the information or services the organization, website, or product may provideor recommendations it may make. T h is work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engagedin rendering professional services. T h e advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for yoursituation. You should consult with a specialist where appropriate. Further, readers should be aware thatwebsites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and whenit is read. Neither the publisher nor authors shall be liable for any loss of prof i t or any other commercialdamages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataNames: Molina, Gustavo, 1983- editor. | Gupta, Vijai Kumar, editor. |Singh, Brahma N., 1981- editor. | Gathergood, Nicholas, 1972- editor.Title: Bioprocessing for biomolecules production / Gustavo Molina, Inst. ofScience & Technology, UFVJM, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, BR, Vijai KGupta, ERA Chair of Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry andBiotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, EST, Brahma N.Singh, CSIR-National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh,IN, Nicholas Gathergood, ERA Chair of Green Chemistry, TallinnUniversity of Technology, Tallinn, EST.Description: First edition. | Hoboken : Wiley, 2019. | Includesbibliographical references and index.Identif i ers: LCCN 2019023222 (print) | LCCN 2019023223 (ebook) | ISBN9781119434320 (cloth) | ISBN 9781119434368 (adobe pdf) | ISBN9781119434405 (epub)Subjects: LCSH: Biomolecules. | Biochemical engineering.Classif i cation: LCC TP247 .B565 2019 (print) | LCC TP247 (ebook) | DDC660.6/3–dc23LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019023222LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019023223Cover Design: WileyCover Image: © FOTOGRIN/ShutterstockSet in 10/12pt WarnockPro by SPi Global, Chennai, India10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 vContentsContributors xviiPart I General Overview of Biotechnology for Industrial Segments:An Industrial Approach 11 An Overview of Biotechnological Processes in the Food Industry 3BiancaM.P.Silveira,MayaraC.S.Barcelos,KeleA.C.Vespermann,FrancieleM.Pelissari,andGustavoMolina1.1 Introduction 31.2 Biotechnological Process Applied to Food Products 41.2.1 Organic Acids 41.2.2 Flavors 51.2.3 Polysaccharides 61.2.4 Amino Acids 61.2.5 Enzymes 71.2.6 Surfactants 71.2.7 Pigments 81.3 Genetically Modif i ed Organisms (GMO) 91.4 Future Perspectives of Biotechnological Processes in the Food Industry 101.5 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 11References 122 Status of Biotechnological Processes in the PharmaceuticalIndustry 21NataliaVideira,RobsonTramontina,VictoriaRamosSodré,andFabianoJaresContesini2.1 Introduction 212.2 Main Biotechnological Products in the Pharmaceutical Industry 232.2.1 Antibiotics in the Pharmaceutical Industry 232.2.2 Enzymes in the Pharmaceutical Industry 242.2.2.1 Enzymes as Pharmaceuticals 252.2.2.2 Enzymes Used to Obtain Pharmaceuticals 262.2.2.3 Enzymes Used for Diagnostics Purposes 262.2.2.4 Enzyme Production 27 vi Contents2.2.3 Antibodies in the Pharmaceutical Industry 272.2.3.1 Mouse mAbs 292.2.3.2 Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies 302.2.3.3 Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies 302.2.3.4 Human Monoclonal Antibodies 322.3 Prospects for Area Development 332.3.1 Patent Generation 332.3.2 Perspectives for Biotechnology in the Pharmaceutical Sector 352.4 Conclusion 38References 393 Current Status of Biotechnological Processes in the BiofuelIndustries 47GustavoPagottoBorin,RafaelFerrazAlves,andAntônioDjalmaNunesFerrazJúnior3.1 Introduction 473.2 Biofuels and an Overview of the Industrial Processes 493.2.1 Bioethanol 493.2.2 Biodiesel 533.2.3 Biobutanol 543.2.4 Biogas 563.2.5 Microalgal Biomass for Biofuels Production 613.3 Conclusion 62References 62Part II Biotechnological Research and Production of FoodIngredients 714 Research, Development, and Production of Microalgal and MicrobialBiocolorants 73LaurentDufossé4.1 Introduction 734.2 Carotenoids 744.2.1 Lutein and Zeaxanthin 744.2.2 Aryl Carotenoids (Orange Colors and Highly Active Antioxidants) AreSpecif i c to Some Microorganisms 774.2.3 C 50 Carotenoids (Sarcinaxanthin, Decaprenoxanthin) 784.2.4 Techniques for the Production of Novel Carotenoids with Improved ColorStrength/Stability/Antioxidant Properties 794.3 Azaphilones 804.3.1 Toward Mycotoxin-Free Monascus Red 804.3.2 Monascus-Like Pigments from Nontoxigenic Fungal Strains 834.4 Anthraquinones 844.4.1 Fungal Natural Red 844.4.2 Other Fungal Anthraquinones 854.5 Phycobiliproteins 854.6 Conclusion 87References 89 Contents vii5 Prospective Research and Current Technologies for Biof l avorProduction 93MarinaGabrielPessôa,BrunoNicolauPaulino,GustavoMolina,andGlauciaMariaPastore5.1 Introduction 935.2 Microbial Production of Biof l avors 1005.2.1 Biotransformation of Terpenes 1005.2.2 De Novo Synthesis 1045.3 Enzymatic Production of Biof l avors 1085.4 Conclusion 112References 1126 Research and Production of Biosurfactants for the FoodIndustry 125EduardoJ.GudiñaandLígiaR.Rodrigues6.1 Introduction 1256.2 Biosurfactants as Food Additives 1266.3 Biosurfactants as Powerful Antimicrobial and Anti-Adhesive Weapons for theFood Industry 1296.4 Potential Role of Biosurfactants in New Nano-Solutions for the FoodIndustry 1346.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 135Acknowledgments 136References 1367 Fermentative Production of Microbial Exopolysaccharides 145JochenSchmidandVolkerSieber7.1 Introduction 1457.2 Cultivation Media and Renewable Resources 1477.3 Bioreactor Geometries and Design 1487.4 Fermentation Strategies for Microbial Exopolysaccharide Production 1527.5 Approaches to Reduce Fermentation Broth Viscosity 1537.6 Polymer Byproducts and Purity 1547.7 Downstream Processing of Microbial Exopolysaccharides 1557.7.1 Removal of Cell Biomass 1557.7.2 Precipitation of the Polysaccharides 1567.7.3 Dewatering/Drying of the Polysaccharides 1587.8 Conclusions 159References 1598 Research and Production of Microbial Polyunsaturated FattyAcids 167GwendolineChristophe,PierreFontanille,andChristianLarroche8.1 Introduction 1678.2 Lipids Used for Food Supplement 1688.2.1 PUFAs: Omega-3 and Omega-6 Families 1688.2.2 Role of PUFAs in Health 1698.3 Microbial Lipids 170 viii Contents8.3.1 Biosynthesis in Oleaginous Microorganisms 1708.3.2 Microorganisms Involved in PUFAs Production 1758.3.2.1 Yeast 1758.3.2.2 Fungi 1758.3.2.3 T h raustochytrids and Microalgae 1788.4 Production Strategies 1828.4.1 Culture Conditions 1828.4.1.1 Nutritional Aspects 1828.4.1.2 Temperature 1838.4.1.3 pH 1838.4.1.4 Oxygen 1848.4.1.5 Light 1848.5 Process Strategies 1858.5.1 Modes of Culture 1858.5.2 Substrates 1868.5.3 Metabolic Engineering 1868.6 Conclusions 187References 1879 Research and Production of Organic Acids and IndustrialPotential 195SandeepKumarPanda,LopamudraSahu,SunilKumarBehera,andRameshChandraRay9.1 Introduction: History and Current Trends 1959.2 Current and Future Markets for Organic Acids 1969.3 Types of Organic Acids 1969.3.1 Citric Acid 1979.3.2 Acetic Acid 1989.3.3 Propionic Acid (PA) 1989.3.4 Succinic Acid 1999.3.5 Lactic Acid 2009.3.6 Other Organic Acids 2009.4 Metabolic/Genetic Engineering: Trends in Organic Acid Technology 2019.5 Research Gaps and Techno-Economic Feasibility 2029.6 Conclusion 204References 20410 Research and Production of Microbial Polymers for FoodIndustry 211SinemSelvinSelvi,EdinaEminagic,MuhammedYusufKandur,EmrahOzcan,CeydaKasavi,andEbruToksoyOner10.1 Introduction 21110.1.1 Biosynthesis of Microbial Polymers 21210.2 Levan 21310.2.1 General Properties of Levan 21310.2.2 Production Processes for Levan 21310.2.3 Food Applications of Levan 216 Contents ix10.3 Pullulan 21610.3.1 General Properties of Pullulan 21610.3.2 Production Processes of Pullulan 21610.3.3 Food Applications of Pullulan 21810.4 Alginate 21810.4.1 General Properties of Alginate 21810.4.2 Production Processes for Alginate 21810.4.3 Food Applications of Alginate 21910.5 Curdlan 21910.5.1 General Properties of Curdlan 21910.5.2 Production Processes for Curdlan 22010.5.3 Food Applications of Curdlan 22110.6 Gellan Gum 22110.6.1 General Properties of Gellan Gum 22110.6.2 Production Processes for Gellan Gum 22110.6.3 Food Applications of Gellan Gum 22210.7 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) 22310.7.1 General Properties of PHAs 22310.7.2 Food Applications of PHAs 22510.8 Scleroglucan 22510.8.1 General Properties of Scleroglucan 22510.8.2 Production Processes for Scleroglucan 22610.8.3 Food Applications of Scleroglucans 22610.9 Xanthan Gum 22610.9.1 General Properties of Xanthan Gum 22610.9.2 Production Processes of Xanthan Gum 22710.9.3 Food Applications of Xanthan Gum 22710.10 Dextran 22810.10.1 General Properties of Dextran 22810.10.2 Production Processes of Dextran 22910.10.3 Food Applications of Dextran 23010.11 Conclusions 230References 23211 Research and Production of Microbial Functional Sugars and TheirPotential for Industry 239HelenTreichel,SimoneMariaGolunski,AlineFrumiCamargo,ThamarysScapini,TatianiAndressaModkovski,BrunoVenturin,EduardaRobertaBordin,VanusaRossetto,andAltemirJoséMossi11.1 Introduction 23911.2 Bioactive Compounds 24011.2.1 Probiotics 24011.2.2 Prebiotics 24111.3 Production Technology for Probiotic Strains 24311.4 Stabilization Technology for Probiotic Strains 24411.4.1 Microencapsulation 24411.4.2 Spray Drying 246 x Contents11.4.3 Freeze Drying 24611.4.4 Fluidized Bed and Vacuum Drying 24711.4.5 Other Technologies 24711.5 Study of Scale-Up Process: Advances, Dif f i culties, and LimitationsAchieved 24811.6 Potential Development of the Area and Future Prospects 24811.7 Conclusion 249References 25012 Research and Production of Ingredients Using Unconventional RawMaterials as Alternative Substrates 255SusanaRodríguez-Couto12.1 Introduction 25512.2 Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) 25612.3 Production of Food Ingredients from Unconventional Raw Materials bySSF 25712.3.1 Organic Acids 25712.3.2 Phenolic Compounds 26412.3.3 Flavor and Aroma Compounds 26512.3.4 Pigments 26612.4 Outlook 267References 267Part III Biotechnological Research and Production ofBiomolecules 27313 Genetic Engineering as a Driver for Biotechnological Developmentsand Cloning Tools to Improve Industrial Microorganisms 275CíntiaLacerdaRamos,LeonardodeFigueiredoVilela,andRosaneFreitasSchwan13.1 Introduction 27513.2 Microorganisms and Metabolites of Industrial Interest 27513.2.1 Primary Metabolites 27613.2.2 Secondary Metabolites 27713.2.3 Microbial Enzymes 27813.3 T h e Culture-Independent Method for Biotechnological Developments 27913.4 Tools and Methodologies Applied to GMOs Generation 28013.5 Conclusion 285References 28514 Advances in Biofuel Production by Strain Development in Yeast fromLignocellulosic Biomass 289AravindMadhavan,RaveendranSindhu,K.B.Arun,AshokPandey,ParameswaranBinod,andEdgardGnansounou14.1 Introduction 28914.2 Improvement of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 29014.3 Engineering of Substrate Utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 291 Contents xi14.4 Engineering Tolerance Against Inhibitors, Temperature, and Solvents 29314.5 Future Perspectives and Conclusions 295Acknowledgments 296References 29715 Fermentative Production of Beta-Glucan: Properties and PotentialApplications 303RafaelRodriguesPhilippini,SabrinaEvelinMartiniano,JúlioCésardosSantos,SilvioSilvériodaSilva,andAnujKumarChandel15.1 Introduction 30315.2 Beta-Glucan Structure and Properties 30415.3 Microorganisms: Assets in Beta-Glucan Production 30715.4 Strain Improvement Methods for Beta-Glucan Production 30815.5 Fermentation: Methods and New Formulations 30815.5.1 Carbon Sources 31015.5.2 Nitrogen Sources 31015.5.3 Micronutrients, Additives, and Vitamins 31015.5.4 pH, Temperature, and Fermentation Time 31115.5.5 Fermentation Methods 31115.6 Beta-Glucan Recovery Methods 31215.7 Potential Applications of Beta-Glucan 31215.7.1 Food Applications 31215.7.2 Chemical Applications 31315.7.3 Pharmaceutical Applications 31415.7.4 Utilization of Agroindustrial Byproducts as Carbon and NitrogenSources 31415.7.5 Future Commercial Prospects 31515.8 Conclusions 315Acknowledgment 315References 31616 Extremophiles for Hydrolytic Enzymes Productions: Biodiversity andPotential Biotechnological Applications 321DivjotKour,KusamLataRana,TanvirKaur,BhanumatiSingh,VinaySinghChauhan,AshokKumar,AliA.Rastegari,NeelamYadav,AjarNathYadav,andVijaiKumarGupta16.1 Introduction 32116.2 Enumeration and Characterization of Extremophiles 32216.3 Biodiversity and Abundance of Extremophiles 32516.4 Diversity of Extremozymes and T h eir Biotechnological Applications 33316.4.1 Amylase 33316.4.2 Proteases 33716.4.3 Pectinase 33716.4.4 Cellulase 33916.4.5 Xylanases 34016.4.6 Lipases 34816.4.7 L-Glutaminase 35016.4.8 β-Galactosidase 351 xii Contents16.4.9 Tannases 35216.4.10 Aminopeptidases 35216.4.11 Polysaccharide Lyases 35316.4.12 Phytases 35416.5 Conclusion and Future Scope 355Acknowledgment 355References 35617 Recent Development in Ferulic Acid Esterase for IndustrialProduction 373SurabhiSingh,OmPrakashDwivedi,andShashankMishra17.1 Introduction 37317.2 Microbial Production of Ferulic Acid Esterase 37417.3 Microbial Assay for FAE Production 37417.4 Worldwide Demand and Production of FAE 37517.5 Process Optimization for FAE Production 37517.6 Recent Development and Genetic Engineering for the Enhancement of FAEProduction 37817.7 Conclusion 379References 37918 Research and Production of Second-Generation Biofuels 383H.L.Raghavendra,ShashankMishra,ShivaleelaP.Upashe,andJulianaF.Floriano18.1 Introduction 38318.1.1 Second-Generation Biofuels 38418.1.2 Feedstocks for Biofuels 38418.1.2.1 Lignocellulose Biomass 38418.1.2.2 Forest Residues 38518.1.2.3 Perennial Forage Crops 38518.1.2.4 Residues from Agriculture 38618.1.2.5 Energy Crops 38618.1.3 Feedstocks for Biodiesel 38618.1.3.1 Microalgae 38618.1.3.2 Jatropha 38618.1.4 Types of Second-Generation Biofuels 38618.1.4.1 Biodiesel 38618.1.4.2 Bioethanol 38718.1.4.3 Biogas 38818.1.4.4 Lean Premixed Prevaporized (LPP) Liquid Biofuels 38818.1.4.5 Syngas 38818.1.4.6 Dimethyl Ether (DME) 38818.1.5 Research on Second-Generation Biofuels 38918.1.6 Production of Second-Generation Biofuels 39218.1.6.1 Biochemical Process 39218.1.6.2 T h ermochemical Process 39218.1.6.3 Flexibility of Biofuel Production 39218.1.6.4 Area Requirements for the Production of Biofuels 394 Contents xiii18.1.6.5 Carbon Balance 39418.1.6.6 Net Energy Balance 39518.1.6.7 Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide 39518.1.7 T h e Impact on the Environment During the Production ofSecond-Generation Biofuels 39518.1.7.1 Production of Greenhouse Gases 39518.1.7.2 Water Footprints 39518.1.7.3 Impact on Biodiversity 39618.1.8 Conclusions 396References 39719 Research and Production of Third-Generation Biofuels 401SaurabhSingh,ArthurP.A.Pereira,andJayPrakashVerma19.1 Introduction 40119.2 Cultivation of Algal Cells 40219.3 Strain Selection 40419.4 Types of Micro-Algae Used to Produce T h ird-Generation Biofuels 40519.5 Biomass Preparation for T h ird-Generation Biofuel 40519.6 Photobioreactors 40619.6.1 Open Ponds 40619.6.2 Vertical Column Photobioreactors 40719.6.3 Flat-Plate Photobioreactors 40719.6.4 Tubular Photobioreactors 40719.6.5 Internally Illuminated Photobioreactors 40819.7 Production of Biofuels from Algal Cultures 40819.7.1 Biochemical Conversion 40819.7.2 T h ermochemical Conversion 41019.7.3 Chemical Conversion 41019.8 Factors Governing the Production of T h ird-Generation Biofuels 41119.9 Advantages of T h ird-Generation Biofuel Production 41119.10 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 412Acknowledgments 413References 41320 Bioethanol Production from Fruit and Vegetable Wastes 417MeganathanBhuvaneswariandNallusamySivakumar20.1 Introduction 41720.2 Importance of Biofuels 41820.3 Bioethanol as a Promising Biofuel 41820.4 Bioethanol from Wastes 41920.5 General Mechanism of Production of Bioethanol 42020.6 Ethanol Production Using Fruit Wastes 42020.6.1 Bioethanol from Banana Wastes 42020.6.2 Bioethanol from Citrus Fruit Wastes 42120.6.3 Bioethanol from Pineapple Wastes 42220.6.4 Bioethanol from Pomegranate 42220.6.5 Bioethanol from Mango Wastes 423 xiv Contents20.6.6 Bioethanol from Jackfruit Wastes 42320.6.7 Bioethanol from Date Palm Fruit Wastes 42320.6.8 Pistachio-Wastes as Potential Raw Material 42320.6.9 Bioethanol from Other Fruit Wastes 42420.7 Bioethanol from Vegetable Wastes 42420.8 Conclusion 425References 42521 Bioprocessing of Cassava Stem to Bioethanol Using Soaking inAqueous Ammonia Pretreatment 429AshokanAnushya,MoorthiSwathika,SelvarajuSivamani,andNallusamySivakumar21.1 Introduction 42921.2 Characterization of Cassava Stem 43121.3 SAA Pretreatment of Cassava Stem 43121.3.1 Ef f ect of Temperature 43221.3.2 Ef f ect of Ammonia Concentration 43421.3.3 Ef f ect of SLR 43421.4 Ethanol Fermentation 43721.5 Conclusion 437References 43822 Bioprospecting of Microbes for Biohydrogen Production: CurrentStatus and Future Challenges 443SunilKumar,SushmaSharma,SapnaThakur,TanujaMishra,PuneetNegi,ShashankMishra,AbdEl-LatifHesham,AliA.Rastegari,NeelamYadav,andAjarNathYadav22.1 Introduction 44322.2 Biohydrogen Production Process 44422.2.1 Photofermentation 44422.2.2 Dark Fermentation 44922.2.2.1 Role of Microbes in Dark Fermentation 44922.2.2.2 Factors Af f ecting Biohydrogen Production in Dark Fermentation 44922.2.2.3 Productivity-Enhancing Approaches 45122.2.3 Biophotolysis 45222.2.3.1 Direct Biophotolysis 45222.2.3.2 Indirect Biophotolysis 45322.2.3.3 Role of Microbes in Biophotolysis 45322.2.4 Microbial Electrolysis Cells 45422.2.4.1 Advantageous MEC Technology 45422.2.4.2 Possible Designs of MECs and T h eir Performances 45522.2.4.3 Limitations in MECs and T h eir Potential Solution 45522.3 Molecular Aspects of Hydrogen Production 45822.4 Biotechnological Tools Involved in the Process 45922.5 Reactors for Biohydrogen Production 460 Contents xv22.5.1 Tubular Reactor 46022.5.2 Flat Panel Reactor 46122.6 Scientif i c Advancements and Major Challenges in Biohydrogen ProductionProcesses 46122.7 Conclusions and Future Prospects 462Acknowledgment 462References 462Index 473 xviiContributorsRafaelFerrazAlvesSchool of Food EngineeringUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)Campinas-SPBrazilNovozymes Latin America Ltda.Araucária-PRBrazilAshokanAnushyaDepartment of Biotechnology,Kumaraguru College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndiaKBArunRajiv Gahdhi Center for BiotechnologyT h iruvananthapuramIndiaMayaraC.S.BarcelosLaboratory of FoodBiotechnology – Food EngineeringInstitute of Science andTechnology – UFVJMDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazilSunilKumarBeheraDepartment of Bioscience andBioinformaticsKhallikote UniversityBerhampur, OdishaIndiaMeganathanBhuvaneswariDepartment of BiotechnologySona College of Arts and ScienceSalemIndiaParameswaranBinodMicrobial Processes and TechnologyDivisionCouncil of Scientif i c and IndustrialResearch – National Institute forInterdisciplinary Science and Technology(CSIR-NIIST)T h iruvananthapuram, KeralaIndiaEduardaRobertaBordinLaboratory of Microbiology andBioprocessesFederal University of Fronteira SulErechim, Rio Grande do SulBrazilGustavoPagottoBorinBrazilian BioRenewables NationalLaboratory (LNBR)Brazilian Center for Research in Energyand Materials (CNPEM)Campinas-SPBrazil xviii ContributorsGraduate Program in Genetics andMolecular BiologyInstitute of Biology, University ofCampinas (UNICAMP)Campinas-SPBrazilAlineFrumiCamargoLaboratory of Microbiology andBioprocessesFederal University of Fronteira SulErechim, Rio Grande do SulBrazilAnujKumarChandelDepartment of Biotechnology,Engineering School of Lorena (EEL)University of São PauloLorena, São PauloBrazilVinaySinghChauhanDepartment of BiotechnologyBundelkhand UniversityJhansiIndiaGwendolineChristopheUniversité Clermont AuvergneCNRS, Sigma ClermontInstitut PascalAubièreFranceFabianoJaresContesiniDepartment of Biochemistry and TissueBiologyInstitute of Biology, University ofCampinas – (Unicamp)Campinas, São PauloBrazilLaurentDufosséLaboratoire de Chimie des SubstancesNaturelles et des Sciences des AlimentsLCSNSAEcole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs RéunionOcéan Indien ESIROIDépartement AgroalimentaireUniversité de La RéunionSainte-ClotildeFranceOmPrakashDwivediDepartment of BotanyS.V.M. Science and Technology P.G.CollegeLalganj, Uttar PradeshIndiaEdinaEminagicDepartment of BioengineeringIndustrial Biotechnology and SystemsBiology (IBSB) Research GroupMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkeyAntônioDjalmaNunesFerrazJúniorCentre for Environmental PolicyImperial CollegeLondonUKLeonardodeFigueiredoVilelaDepartment of Basic SciencesFederal University of the Jequitinhonhaand Mucuri ValleysDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazilJulianaF.FlorianoDepartment of Obstretrics andGynecology, Medical School of BotucatuSão Paulo State University (UNESP)BotucatuBrazil Contributors xixPierreFontanilleUniversité Clermont AuvergneCNRS, Sigma ClermontInstitut PascalAubièreFranceEdgardGnansounouEcole Polytechnique Federale deLlausanneENAC GR-GNLausanneSwitzerlandSimoneMariaGolunskiLaboratory of Microbiology andBioprocessesFederal University of Fronteira SulErechim, Rio Grande do SulBrazilEduardoJ.GudiñaCEB - Centre of Biological EngineeringCampus de Gualtar, University of MinhoBragaPortugalVijaiKumarGuptaERA Chair of Green ChemistryDepartment of Chemistry ofBiotechnology, School of ScienceTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstoniaAbdEl-LatifHeshamGenetics Department, Faculty ofAgricultureAssiut UniversityAssiutEgyptMuhammed Yusuf KandurDepartment of BioengineeringIndustrial Biotechnology and SystemsBiology (IBSB) Research GroupMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkeyCeydaKasaviDepartment of BioengineeringIndustrial Biotechnology and SystemsBiology (IBSB) Research GroupMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkeyTanvirKaurDepartment of BiotechnologyAkal College of AgricultureEternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourHimachal PradeshIndiaDivjotKourDepartment of Biotechnology, AkalCollege of AgricultureEternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourHimachal PradeshIndiaAshokKumarDepartment of Biotechnology andBioinformaticsJaypee University of InformationWaknaghat, SolanIndiaSunilKumarDepartment of Biotechnology, AkalCollege of AgricultureEternal University Baru Sahib, SirmourHimachal PradeshIndia xx ContributorsChristianLarrocheUniversité Clermont AuvergneCNRS, Sigma ClermontInstitut PascalAubièreFranceAravindMadhavanMicrobial Processes and TechnologyDivisionCouncil of Scientif i c and IndustrialResearch – National Institute forInterdisciplinary Science and Technology(CSIR-NIIST)T h iruvananthapuramKerala, IndiaGlauciaMariaLaboratory of FoodBiotechnology – Food EngineeringInstitute of Science andTechnology – UFVJMDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazilSabrinaEvelinMartinianoDepartment of Biotechnology,Engineering School of Lorena (EEL)University of São PauloLorena, São PauloBrazilShashankMishraQuality Control and Quality AssuranceLaboratoryBiotech Park, Sector G, JankipuramLucknow, Uttar PradeshIndiaTanujaMishraDepartment of Biotechnology, AkalCollege of AgricultureEternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourHimachal PradeshIndiaTatianiAndressaModkovskiLaboratory of Microbiology andBioprocessesFederal University of Fronteira SulErechim, Rio Grande do SulBrazilGustavoMolinaLaboratory of FoodBiotechnology - Food EngineeringInstitute of Science andTechnology - UFVJMDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazilAltemirJoséMossiLaboratory of Microbiology andBioprocessesFederal University of Fronteira SulErechim, Rio Grande do SulBrazilPuneetNegiDepartment of Physics, Akal College ofBasic SciencesEternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourIndiaEbruToksoyOnerDepartment of BioengineeringIndustrial Biotechnology and SystemsBiology (IBSB) Research GroupMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkeyEmrahOzcanDepartment of BioengineeringIndustrial Biotechnology and SystemsBiology (IBSB) Research GroupMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey Contributors xxiDepartment of BioengineeringGebze Technical UniversityKocaeliTurkeySandeepKumarPandaSchool of BiotechnologyKIIT UniversityBhubaneswarIndiaAshokPandeyCSIR-Indian Institute of ToxicologyResearch (CSIR-IITR)Lucknow, Uttar PradeshIndiaBrunoNicolauPaulinoLaboratory of Biof l avors and BioactiveCompounds, Department of FoodScienceSchool of Food EngineeringUniversity of CampinasCampinas, São PauloBrazilFaculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesFederal University of AmazonasManausBrazilGlauciaMariaPastoreLaboratory of Biof l avors and BioactiveCompounds, Department of FoodScienceSchool of Food EngineeringUniversity of CampinasCampinas, São PauloBrazilFrancieleM.PelissariLaboratory of FoodBiotechnology – Food EngineeringInstitute of Science andTechnology – UFVJMDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazilArthurP.A.PereiraLuiz de Queiroz College of AgricultureUniversity of São PauloPiracicabaBrazilHawkesbury Institute for theEnvironmentHawkesbury CampusWestern Sydney UniversityPenrithAustraliaMarinaGabrielPessôaLaboratory of Biof l avors and BioactiveCompoundsDepartment of Food ScienceSchool of Food EngineeringUniversity of CampinasBrazilRafaelRodriguesPhilippiniDepartment of Biotechnology,Engineering School of Lorena (EEL)University of São PauloLorena, São PauloBrazilHLRaghavendraDepartment of Biochemistry,School of MedicineWollega Univeristy, Nekemte UniversityNekemteEthiopiaDepartment of Obstetrics andGynecologyMedical School of BotucatuSão Paulo State University (UNESP)BotucatuBrazil xxii ContributorsCollege of Medical and Health SciencesWollega UniversityNekemte, OromiaEthiopiaCintiaLacerdaRamosDepartment of Basic SciencesFederal University of the Jequitinhonhaand Mucuri ValleysDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazilKusamLataRanaDepartment of Biotechnology, AkalCollege of AgricultureEternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourHimachal PradeshIndiaAliA.RastegariDepartment of Molecular and CellBiochemistry, Falavarjan BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIranRameshChandraRayICAR-Regional Center of Central TuberCrops Research InstituteBhubaneswarIndiaLígiaR.RodriguesCEB - Centre of Biological EngineeringCampus de Gualtar, University of MinhoBragaPortugalSusanaRodriguez-CoutoIKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation forScienceBilbaoSpainVanusaRossettoLaboratory of Microbiology andBioprocessesFederal University of Fronteira SulErechim, Rio Grande do SulBrazilLopamudraSahuDepartment of Botany, Utkal UniversityBhuabaneswarIndiaJúlioCésardosSantosDepartment of Biotechnology,Engineering School of Lorena (EEL)University of São PauloLorena, São PauloBrazilThamarysScapiniLaboratory of Microbiology andBioprocessesFederal University of Fronteira SulErechim, Rio Grande do SulBrazilJochenSchmidChemistry of Biogenic ResourcesTechnical University of MunichCampus Straubing for Biotechnology andSustainabilityStraubingGermanyNorwegian University of Science andTechnologyDepartment of Biotechnology and FoodScienceSem Sælands vei, TrondheimNorway Contributors xxiiiRosaneFreitasSchwanDepartment of BiologyFederal University of LavrasLavras, Minas GeraisBrazilSinemSelvinSelviDepartment of BioengineeringIndustrial Biotechnology and SystemsBiology (IBSB) Research GroupMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkeySushmaSharmaDepartment of Biotechnology, AkalCollege of AgricultureEternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourIndiaVolkerSieberChemistry of Biogenic ResourcesTechnical University of MunichCampus Straubing for Biotechnology andSustainabilityStraubingGermanySilvioSilvériodaSilvaDepartment of Biotechnology,Engineering School of Lorena (EEL)University of São PauloLorena, São PauloBrazilBiancaM.P.SilveiraLaboratory of FoodBiotechnology – Food EngineeringInstitute of Science andTechnology – UFVJMDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazilRaveendranSindhuMicrobial Processes and TechnologyDivisionCouncil of Scientif i c and IndustrialResearch – National Institute forInterdisciplinary Science and Technology(CSIR-NIIST)T h iruvananthapuramKeralaIndiaBhanumatiSinghDepartment of BiotechnologyBundelkhand UniversityJhansiIndiaSaurabhSinghInstitute of Environment and SustainableDevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndiaSurabhiSinghDepartment of BotanyS.V.M. Science and Technology P.G.CollegeLalganj, Uttar PradeshIndiaNallusamySivakumarDepartment of Biology,College of ScienceSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscat, Sultanate of OmanSelvarajuSivamaniDepartment of BiotechnologyKumaraguru College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia xxiv ContributorsVictoriaRamosSodréGraduation Program of Functional andMolecular Biology, Institute of BiologyState University of Campinas (Unicamp)Campinas, São PauloBrazilMoorthiSwathikaDepartment of BiotechnologyKumaraguru College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndiaSapnaThakurDepartment of Biotechnology, AkalCollege of AgricultureEternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourHimachal PradeshIndiaRobsonTramontinaBrazilian Bioethanol Science andTechnology Laboratory (CTBE)Brazilian Center for Research in Energyand Materials (CNPEM)Campinas, São PauloBrazilGraduation Program of Biosciences andTechnology of Bioactive ProductsInstitute of BiologyState University of Campinas (Unicamp)Campinas, São PauloBrazilHelenTreichelLaboratory of Microbiology andBioprocessesFederal University of Fronteira SulErechim, Rio Grande do SulBrazilShivaleelaP.UpasheCollege of Medical and Health SciencesWollega UniversityNekemte, OromiaEthiopiaCollege of Nursing SciencesSchool of Health SciencesDayananda Sagar UniversityShavige Malleshwara HillsBangalore, KarnatakaIndiaBrunoVenturinLaboratory of Microbiology andBioprocessesFederal University of Fronteira SulErechim, Rio Grande do SulBrazilJayPrakashVermaInstitute of Environment and SustainableDevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndiaHawkesbury Institute for theEnvironmentHawkesbury Campus, Western SydneyUniversityPenrithSydneyAustraliaKeleA.C.VespermannLaboratory of FoodBiotechnology – Food EngineeringInstitute of Science andTechnology – UFVJMDiamantina, Minas GeraisBrazil Contributors xxvNataliaVideiraGraduation Program of Biosciences andTechnology of Bioactive Products,Institute of BiologyState University of Campinas (Unicamp)Campinas, São PauloBrazilBrazilian Biosciences NationalLaboratory (LNBio)Brazilian Center for Research in Energyand Materials (CNPEM)Campinas, São PauloBrazilAjarNathYadavDepartment of Biotechnology, AkalCollege of AgricultureEternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourHimachal PradeshIndiaNeelamYadavGopi Nath P....

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